By causing a period of cooling in Europe, it may have contributed to the decline of Old Europe and the first Indo-European migrations into the Balkans from the Pontic—Caspian steppe. Around — BCE a climate change occurred, manifesting in colder winters in Europe.
Between — BCE many tell settlements in the lower Danube Valley were burned and abandoned, while the Cucuteni—Trypillia culture showed an increase in fortifications, meanwhile moving eastwards towards the Dniepr. Steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about — BCE, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe. The Leyla-Tepe culture of ancient Azerbaijan belongs to the Chalcolithic era.
It got its name from the site in the Agdam district. Among the sites associated with this culture, the Soyugbulag kurgans or barrows are of special importance. The excavation of these kurgans, located in Kaspi Municipality, in central Georgia, demonstrated an unexpectedly early date of such structures on the territory of Azerbaijan. They were dated to the beginning of the 4th millennium BC. The Soyugbulag kurgans has provided substantial proof that the practice of kurgan burial was well established in the South Caucasus during the late Eneolithic.
The roots of the Leylatepe Archaeological Culture to which the Soyugbulaq kurgans belong to, stemmed from the Ubaid culture of Southern Iraq. The Leylatepe Culture tribes migrated to the north in the mid-fourth millennium, BC. A number of Maikop Culture kurgans and Soyugbulaq kurgans display the same northwest to southeast grave alignment.
More than that, Soyugbulaq kurgans yielded pottery forms identical to those recovered from the Maikop kurgans. The Leyla-Tepe culture has been linked to the north Ubaid period monuments, in particular, with the settlements in the Eastern Anatolia Region Arslantepe, Coruchu-tepe, Tepechik, etc.
The settlement is of a typical Western-Asian variety, with the dwellings packed closely together and made of mud bricks with smoke outlets. It has been suggested that the Leyla-Tepe were the founders of the Maykop culture. An expedition to Syria by the Russian Academy of Sciences revealed the similarity of the Maykop and Leyla-Tepe artifacts with those found recently while excavating the ancient city of Tel Khazneh I, from the 4th millennium BC.
It is especially well attested at Amuq F phase.
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Similar pottery is also found at Kultepe, Azerbaijan. In , the important site of Galayeri, belonging to the Leyla-Tepe archaeological culture, was investigated. It is located in the Qabala District of Azerbaijan.
Galayeri is closely connected to early civilizations of Near East. Structures consisting of clay layers are typical; no mud-brick walls have been detected at Galayeri. Almost all findings have Eastern Anatolian Chalcolithic characteristics. This is attributed to migrants from Uruk, arriving around BCE. Recent research indicates the connections rather to the pre-Uruk traditions, such as the late Ubaid period, and Ubaid-Uruk phases.
Leyla-Tepe metalwork tradition was very sophisticated right from the beginning, and featured many bronze items. Yet later, the quality of metallurgy declined with the Kura—Araxes culture, an early Bronze-Age culture in the area assigned to the period between c. The earliest evidence for the Kura Araxes culture is found on the Ararat plain; thence it spread to Georgia by BC, proceeding westward and to the south-east into an area below the Urmia basin and Lake Van.
Hurrian and Urartian language elements are quite probable, as are Northeast Caucasian ones. Some authors subsume Hurrians and Urartians under Northeast Caucasian as well as part of the Alarodian theory. The presence of Kartvelian languages was also highly probable. Influences of Semitic languages and Indo-European languages are highly possible, though the presence of the languages on the lands of the Kura—Araxes culture is more controversial.
In the Armenian hypothesis of Indo-European origins, the Kura Araxes culture and perhaps that of the Maykop culture is identified with the speakers of the Anatolian languages. At that time, there was already strong social differentiation indicated by rich mound burials. There are parallels to the Early Kurgan culture. Cremation was practised. Painted pottery was introduced.
Tin-based bronze became predominant. Geographical interconnectedness and links with other areas of the Near East are seen in many aspects of the culture. For example, a cauldron found in Trialeti is nearly identical to the one from Shaft Grave 4 of Mycenae in Greece. The Trialeti culture shows close ties with the highly developed cultures of the ancient world, particularly with the Aegean, but also with cultures to the south, such as the Sumerians and their Akkadian conquerors. Trialeti-Vanadzor painted monochrome and polychrome pottery is very similar to that in the other areas of the Near East.
In particular, similar ceramics are known as Urmia ware named after Lake Urmia.
Also, similar pottery was produced by the Uzarlik culture, and the Karmirberd-Sevan culture. Martqopi kurgans are somewhat similar, and are contemporary to the earliest among the Trialeti kurgans. Together, they represent the early stage of the Early Kurgan culture of Central Transcaucasia. The Martqopi Culture may be dated before BC. According to recent dating, the transition to the Early Kurgan period was around the mid of the 3rd millenium — somewhat between the to BC. The Trialeti culture was known for its particular form of burial. The elite were interred in large, very rich burials under earth and stone mounds, which sometimes contained four-wheeled carts.
Also there were many gold objects found in the graves. These gold objects were similar to those found in Iran and Iraq. They also worked tin and arsenic. In fact, the black burnished pottery of especially early Trialeti kurgans is similar to Kura-Araxes pottery. In a historical context, their impressive accumulation of wealth in burial kurgans, like that of other associated and nearby cultures with similar burial practices, is particularly noteworthy. This practice was probably a result of influence from the older civilizations to the south in the Fertile Crescent.
During the final phase of the Middle Bronze Age c. Tazakend , Karmir-Vank a.
Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. However, with the ascent of the Hittite Empire, Mitanni and Egypt struck an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, Mitanni had outposts centred on its capital, Washukanni, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River.
The Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. Eventually, Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and later Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. While the Mitanni kings were Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian. Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type.
Like his father Shattuara, Wasashatta was an Assyrian vassal.
He revolted against his master Adad-nirari I c. The Assyrians crushed his revolt and devastated Hanigalbat. The royal family was captured and brought to Assur and Wasashatta was never heard of again. Some scholars think he became ruler of a reduced Mitanni state called Shubria or Arme-Shupria, a Hurrian kingdom, known from Assyrian sources beginning in the 13th century BC.
Shubar was located in what is now known as the Armenian Highlands, to the southwest of Lake Van, bordering on Ararat proper. Some scholars have linked the district in the area called Arme or Armani, to the name Armenia. Weidner interpreted textual evidence to indicate that after the Hurrian king Shattuara of Mitanni was defeated by Adad-nirari I of the Middle Assyrian Empire in the early 13th century BC, he then became ruler of a reduced vassal state known as Shubria or Subartu.
The name Subartu Sumerian: Shubur for the region is attested much earlier, from the time of the earliest Mesopotamian records mid 3rd millennium BC , although the term during Sumerian times appears to have described Upper Mesopotamia Assyria. Armani, also given as Armanum was an ancient kingdom mentioned by Sargon of Akkad and his grandson Naram-Sin of Akkad as stretching from Ibla which might or might not be Ebla to Bit-Nanib; its location is heavily debated, and it continued to be mentioned in later Assyrian inscriptions.
Armani was attested in the treaties of Sargon in a section that mentions regions located in Assyria and Babylonia or territories adjacent to the east, in contrast to the Syrian Ebla, located in the west.